Beneath is a recap of all of the witnesses who’ve testified for the prosecution at Derek Chauvin’s trial as of noon Thursday, so as of look. 


911 dispatcher Jenna Scurry 

The prosecution’s first witness on Monday, March 29, was Jenna Scurry, a 911 dispatcher who watched reside video of police kneeling on Floyd and testified that she referred to as the officers’ supervisor with issues about their use of drive.  

It was Scurry who despatched officers to the Cup Meals at thirty eighth and Chicago Avenue on Might 25, 2020, after receiving a name a couple of man utilizing a counterfeit invoice. 

Scurry informed how she had seen surveillance footage of the incident from one of many metropolis’s pole mounted cameras and been struck by a ‘intestine intuition’ that ‘one thing wasn’t proper’. 

The video, which had not beforehand been launched publicly, confirmed Chauvin and fellow officers Lane and Keung perched atop Floyd subsequent to a squad automobile whereas officer Thao seemed on. 

Scurry famous that she wasn’t watching the stream your complete time as a result of she was fielding different calls. However she mentioned that as she glanced away and again once more, she was struck that the officers hadn’t moved and requested a colleague if the display had frozen. 

‘I first requested if the screens had frozen as a result of it hadn’t modified. I believed one thing is likely to be mistaken,’ she mentioned. 

‘It was an prolonged time period. I am unable to let you know the precise interval they usually hadn’t informed me in the event that they wanted any extra sources however I turned involved that one thing is likely to be mistaken.’ 

She mentioned that she hadn’t needed to be a ‘snitch’ however she acknowledged what seemed to be use of drive and said: ‘I took that intuition and I referred to as the sergeant.’

Assistant Lawyer Basic Matthew Frank performed audio from the decision, by which Scurry mentioned: ‘I do not know if they’d to make use of drive or not. They bought one thing out of the again of the squad and all of them sat on this man. So I do not know in the event that they wanted to or not however they have not mentioned something to me but.’ 

‘You possibly can name me a snitch if you wish to,’ she added.

She mentioned she made the decision to ‘voice my issues’ and famous that she had by no means made one prefer it to a police sergeant earlier than.    

Cross analyzing Scurry, Chauvin’s lawyer Eric Nelson was at pains to underscore gaps in what she noticed and the details that she had no police coaching, little information of what the calls to which she despatched officers really seemed like and identified that her consideration was not skilled on the display always.

Bystander Alisha Oyler 

Jurors have been proven but extra beforehand unseen video footage on Monday afternoon – this time within the type of a sequence of cellphone recordings made by Alisha Oyler, a cashier on the Speedway fuel station reverse Cup Meals who was the state’s second witness. 

‘Making an attempt to not cuss’ and incessantly failing to recall occasions Oyler defined that she had first seen police ‘messing with somebody’ exterior the Dragon Wok restaurant reverse Cup Meals. 

She mentioned she had watched officers handcuff Floyd and take him throughout to the now notorious website of squad automobile 320 in entrance of the shop’s entrance and continued to document occasions on her cellphone as she stepped out to have a cigarette.

She mentioned she had achieved so as a result of the police have been ‘all the time messing with folks and it is not proper’.

MMA fighter and bystander Donald Williams

Donald Winn Williams II, a blended martial arts fighter and the prosecution’s third witness who had yelled at Chauvin to test for a pulse and accused him of putting Floyd in what he referred to as a ‘kill choke’, testified first on Monday earlier than persevering with on Tuesday. 

Williams turned emotional as he spoke about how he referred to as 911 after Floyd was positioned in an ambulance as a result of:  ‘I believed I had simply witnessed a homicide. I felt the necessity to name the police on the police.’

He started to cry as jurors have been performed audio of the decision, by which he named officer 987 and mentioned: ‘He simply just about killed this man. He wasn’t resisting arrest. He had his knee on his neck. He wasn’t resisting arrest or nothing, he was handcuffed.’ 

Williams mentioned he witnessed Chauvin ‘shimmying’, or adjusting his place on Floyd’s neck, in a acknowledged martial artwork maneuver designed to double-down on and tighten a choke maintain.

He informed how he watched Chauvin squeeze the life out of Floyd, who he mentioned was in ‘large ache’ and ‘light away like a fish in a bag’ 

He mentioned that when he referred to as Chauvin out for utilizing a blood choke the officer seemed him straight within the eye and didn’t cease.  

Williams additionally informed how Officer Tou Thao put his palms on his chest and pushed him again to the curb when he tried to intervene.  

In line with Williams the group that had gathered was not threatening the officers and his calls to test for a pulse have been echoed by an off obligation fireplace fighter whose pleas to the officers additionally went unheard. 

On the finish of his 911 name Williams was heard shouting at Thao: ‘Y’all murderers man, y’all murderers.’   

On cross-examination, Chauvin’s lawyer Eric Nelson tried to undercut William’s presentation of himself as a managed {and professional} observer of occasions who remained schooled by his coaching and expertise in sports activities and safety.

Nelson seemed to be making an attempt to impress Williams right into a show of anger as he repeatedly tried to discredit his claims to having remained calm.

‘You began calling [Chauvin] names did not you?’ Nelson requested. ‘You referred to as him, “a troublesome man.” You referred to as him “such a person,” “bogus.” You referred to as him a “bum” 13 instances. You referred to as him a “bitch.”‘

However whereas Williams agreed to all of those assertions he wouldn’t be persuaded to comply with Nelson’s characterization of him as ‘indignant’ or threatening.

Requested if he had informed Officer Tou Thao that he hoped he would shoot himself he mentioned: ‘No..I mentioned you’ll shoot your self in two years due to what you probably did.’ 

Bystander Darnella Frazier, 18 

Darnella Frazier, who was 17 years previous when she recorded essentially the most well-known viral video of Floyd’s arrest final spring, took the stand on Tuesday and informed how she felt helpless as she watched him lose consciousness. 

‘There’s been nights I’ve stayed up apologizing to George Floyd for not doing extra and never bodily interacting, not saving his life,’ Darnella, now 18, mentioned. 

‘But it surely’s not what I ought to have achieved –  it is what he [Chauvin] ought to have achieved.’

Darnella – who was not proven on digital camera in courtroom due to her age – asserted that Chauvin pressed his knee into Floyd’s neck even tougher because the rising crowd begged him to cease – and that he did not take away his knee even when paramedics have been looking for a pulse. 

Below questioning by trial lawyer Jerry Blackwell, Darnella mentioned: ‘I heard George Floyd saying: “I am unable to breathe, please get off of me.” He cried for his mother and he was in ache. 

‘It appeared like he knew it was over for him. He was terrified, he was struggling. This was a cry for assist.’ 

When an ambulance lastly arrived, Darnella claimed that paramedics treating Floyd needed to inform Chauvin to take away his knee from the unconscious man’s neck.

‘The ambulance individual needed to really inform him to carry up. He checked his pulse first whereas Chauvin’s knee nonetheless remained on Floyd’s neck,’ she mentioned. ‘The paramedic did a “stand up” movement, mainly telling him to take away his knee.’  

Darnella mentioned that she felt ‘threatened’ by each Chauvin and Thao who she mentioned ‘have been fast to place their palms on their mace’ when a girl who recognized herself as a firefighter requested Chauvin to test for a pulse and she or he and Darnella made to maneuver in the direction of Floyd the place he lay.

‘Officer Thao and Chauvin, he put his hand on his mace, they put their palms on their mace. I am unable to keep in mind if they really pointed it at us,’ Darnella mentioned.

Requested if, at any level, Chauvin had ‘bought up or let up’ she mentioned: ‘If something he really was kneeling tougher. It seemed like he was shoving his knee in his neck.’ 

On the shut of her testimony Darnella broke down as she informed jurors how witnessing and filming Floyd’s demise affected her life.

‘After I take a look at George Floyd I take a look at my dad, I look my brothers, I take a look at my cousins, my uncles as a result of they’re all black,’ she mentioned. ‘I’ve a black father, black brother, black associates and I take a look at that and I feel how that would have been them.’ 

Bystander Judea, 9 

9-year-old witness Judea, took the witness stand on Tuesday and described how she and her cousin Darnella, who testified earlier, had gone to Cup Meals for snacks on Might 25, 2020, once they discovered Floyd pinned to the bottom by Chauvin and two different cops. 

The lady, who was not proven on digital camera resulting from her age, gave gut-wrenching testimony about how Chauvin refused to take away his knee from Floyd’s neck even after paramedics arrived and ‘requested him properly to get off of him’. 

‘He [Chauvin] nonetheless stayed on him [Floyd],’ Judea mentioned. She mentioned the medics ultimately ‘simply needed to put him off, get him off of him.’

Gently questioned by trial lawyer Jerry Blackwell about how she felt as she noticed these occasions, Judea mentioned: ‘I used to be unhappy and sort of mad. If felt like he was stopping his respiration and sort of hurting him.’ 

Judea is pictured second from the right in a green shirt in video from Floyd's fatal confrontation with police that was shown in court

Judea is pictured second from the appropriate in a inexperienced shirt in video from Floyd’s deadly confrontation with police that was proven in courtroom

Bystander Alyssa, 18

The prosecution’s fourth witness on Tuesday was an 18-year-old named Alyssa, who informed prosecutor Erin Eldridge how she had walked in the direction of the incident and began recording on her pal’s cellphone as a result of she too simply knew that ‘one thing was mistaken’. 

After describing what she noticed of Floyd, Alyssa needed to cease and get better her composure earlier than she might proceed with the clearly distressing testimony. ‘It is troublesome [to talk about] as a result of I felt like there wasn’t something I might do…and I felt like I used to be failing him, failing to do something,’ she mentioned by way of tears. 

As with Darnella and her little cousin who testified this morning, Alyssa mentioned that Chauvin didn’t transfer his knee even on the arrival of paramedics and in reality she noticed him put extra weight on Floyd’s neck because the minutes ticked by.

‘He [Chauvin] did not actually take his eyes off him [Floyd] for essentially the most half. At one level I noticed him put increasingly more weight onto him. I noticed his again foot carry off the bottom and his palms go in his pocket.’

Seeming to echo the motion that an earlier witness, Donald Williams, had described as a ‘shimmy’, she mentioned: ‘I noticed him transfer his knee down extra, make little actions.’

The prosecution performed the video recorded by Alyssa that day, exhibiting but once more the horror of the occasion and the small group of onlookers yelling for Floyd’s pulse to be checked and painted by the protection as an indignant mob.

Alyssa could possibly be heard in clear misery shouting: ‘He isn’t shifting. Examine his pulse. Inform me his pulse proper now. It has been over a minute [since he moved].’

Recalling that day she mentioned merely: ‘I knew that point was operating out. He was going to die.’

Lastly she mentioned, there got here some extent when ‘I sort of knew that he was lifeless and never respiration, not combating, not resisting.’

In a quick cross examination Alyssa admitted that she had informed investigating officers that she had seen the opposite officers (Lane or Keung) checking Floyd’s handcuffed wrist for a pulse ‘a number of instances’. However she added: ‘Afterwards I informed them it seemed like they didn’t discover one.’ 

Bystander Kaylynn, 17 

Alyssa’s pal, 17-year-old Kaylynn, was the final minor to testify on Tuesday. Her recollections aligned with these of earlier witnesses.

She mentioned that it was the cops who have been ‘hostile’ not the group recalling how Chauvin was ‘digging his knee into George Floyd’s neck’ and ‘grabbed his mace and began shaking it at us’ when onlookers shouted at him to test for a pulse.

‘I used to be scared as a result of I didn’t know what was going to occur,’ she mentioned. Requested immediately what she was afraid of, she replied: ‘I used to be afraid of Chauvin.’

Chauvin’s lawyer Eric Nelson didn’t cross look at the ultimate teen

Off-duty firefighter Genevieve Hansen

Off-duty Minneapolis firefighter and paramedic Genevieve Hansen, 27, induced a stir within the courtroom on Tuesday when she was admonished by Decide Cahill for repeatedly interrupting and speaking again to Chauvin’s lawyer Eric Nelson throughout cross examination. 

Hansen had wiped away tears as she recalled how she had recognized herself as a primary responder and begged to assist Floyd when she believed he was dying exterior the Cup Meals retailer in Minneapolis on Might 25, 2020. 

However quickly after her demeanor modified as she was questioned by Nelson, who requested if she would describe bystanders on the scene of Floyd’s arrest as upset or indignant. 

Hansen replied: ‘I do not know in case you’ve seen anyone be killed, nevertheless it’s upsetting.’ 

At this level Decide Cahill stepped in and cautioned Hansen for being argumentative, telling her to ‘simply reply his questions’. 

Minutes later Cahill despatched the jury out for the day earlier than turning to an more and more combative Hansen and telling her in no unsure phrases: ‘You’ll not argue with the courtroom, you’ll not argue with counsel.’    

Below questioning by Assistant Lawyer Basic Matthew Frank on Tuesday, Hansen had defined how her determined pleas to be allowed to supply Floyd with life-saving medical help have been ignored by the officers who pinned him down and blocked by officer Thao.

‘I attempted calm and reasoning, I pleaded and was determined. I used to be determined to assist,’ Hansen mentioned. 

Her calls fell on deaf ears as Chauvin remained unmoved and Officer Thao informed her to stay on the curb, at one level saying: ‘When you actually are a Minneapolis firefighter you’d know higher than to become involved.’ 

In courtroom Hansen mentioned: ‘That is precisely what I ought to have achieved. There was no medical help on the scene and I might have given [it].’  

‘The officers have been leaning over his physique with what seemed to be nearly all of their weight on him,’ she mentioned. ‘He wasn’t shifting, he was cuffed and three grown males placing all their weight on any individual – that is an excessive amount of. 

‘Chauvin appeared very comfy with nearly all of his weight balanced on prime of Mr Floyd’s neck. In my reminiscence he had his hand in his pocket. He wasn’t distributing the burden on the automobile, on the pavement.’

Hansen, who’s a professional EMT with state and nationwide licenses, mentioned that she had assessed that Floyd had a ‘altered stage of consciousness,’ that involved her tremendously.

She mentioned that his face was ‘smooshed’ into the pavement and mentioned: ‘I used to be actually involved. I believed his face seemed puffy and swollen which might occur in case you have been placing a grown man’s weight [on him].

‘I seen some fluid coming from what seemed like George Floyd’s physique and quite a lot of time we see a affected person launch their bladder once they die – that is the place my thoughts went. He was restrained however he wasn’t shifting.’

Hansen mentioned she acknowledged that Floyd was unconscious as a result of he was not responding to the ‘painful stimulae’ of Chauvin’s knee on his neck. 

‘What I wanted to know was whether or not or not he had a pulse anymore,’ she mentioned. However she mentioned she was not permitted entry to the scene and the officers ignored her provides to speak them by way of CPR.

She mentioned she felt ‘helpless.’ ‘There is a man being killed,’ she mentioned, ‘and had I had entry I’d have [helped]. This human was denied that proper.’

Earlier than she took the stand jury noticed video she had recorded on the scene and heard audio of the 911 name she positioned instantly after.

Her voice trembling with shock and emotion she could possibly be heard telling the operator: ‘I actually simply watched cops not take a pulse and to not do something to save lots of a person and I’m a primary responder myself and I actually have it on video.’ 

In an uncomfortable cross-examination, Hansen turned visibly pissed off with Nelson’s line of questioning and refused to be drawn into an admission that she could be distracted from her job if a threatening crowd have been gathered telling her she was ‘doing it mistaken’.

Time after time Nelson tried to get an admission out of her till she mentioned: ‘I feel a burning construction the place there are buildings and houses and other people dwelling on both facet is far more regarding than 20 folks.

‘I am going to repeat myself, I do know my job, I am assured in doing my job and there is nothing anyone can do to disturb me.’ 

As Nelson’s cross examination continued, Hansen turned much less and fewer tolerant of his questioning. When he requested if she had grown indignant, she mentioned she had been ‘determined’ earlier than admitting: ‘I bought fairly indignant after Mr Floyd was loaded into the ambulance and there was no level in making an attempt to purpose with them anymore as a result of they’d simply killed any individual.’ 

In stark distinction to the excessive emotion of Tuesday, questions have been temporary and subdued when Hansen returned to the stand on Wednesday morning.

Requested by Nelson if she had offered ID on the scene of George Floyd’s demise, Hansen mentioned no earlier than confirming to Frank that her evaluation had been that the dying man required, ‘speedy medical consideration.’ 

Cup Meals worker Christopher Martin 

Cup Meals clerk Christopher Martin, who was engaged on Might 25, 2020, took the stand on Wednesday to testify about how his coworker referred to as the cops on Floyd as a result of he believed he used a counterfeit $20 invoice. 

Trying again, Martin mentioned he wished he’d by no means raised alarm in regards to the invoice as a result of he believes Floyd would possibly nonetheless be alive if he hadn’t, telling the courtroom: ‘This might have been averted.’ 

Throughout Martin’s testimony the prosecution performed never-before-seen surveillance video of Floyd inside the shop utilizing the faux invoice to buy cigarettes.  

Martin informed the courtroom that he turned suspicious of the invoice as a result of it had an uncommon ‘blue pigment so I assumed it was faux’. 

‘The coverage was in case you took a counterfeit invoice you needed to pay for it out of your pay-check,’ Martin defined. ‘I took it in any case and was planning to only put it on my tab – till I second guessed myself and ultimately informed my supervisor.’ 

The supervisor then instructed Martin to go exterior and produce Floyd again, he mentioned. When Floyd refused, a co-worker referred to as police. One of many responding officers was Chauvin. 

Questioned by Assistant Lawyer Basic Matthew Frank, Martin mentioned that the 2 issues he seen about Floyd have been his ‘dimension’ and he seemed to be ‘excessive’. 

Nonetheless he mentioned that he didn’t discover Floyd’s demeanor to be threatening, saying: ‘He appeared very pleasant, approachable, talkative, he appeared simply to be having a mean Memorial Day dwelling his life. However he did appear excessive.’  

Martin then narrated a second video exhibiting him talking with Floyd and his acquaintances in a automobile parked exterior Cup Meals. He mentioned he took two journeys out to the automobile, bringing co-workers with him the second time. 

‘I notified them that they wanted to return again into the shop and the invoice was faux and my boss needed to speak to them,’ Martin mentioned.

He recalled Floyd sitting within the driver seat ‘sort of shaking his head, placing his palms on his head. Like: “Why is that this occurring?” sort of factor.’

Floyd repeatedly refused to return again into the shop, at which level Martin mentioned his supervisor instructed a co-worker to name the police. 

He mentioned officers arrived and spoke to the supervisor whereas Martin went again to manning the money register.   

As the shop emptied, Martin turned conscious of a commotion on the entrance of Cup Meals and went exterior, the place he noticed Floyd pinned to the bottom.  

‘I noticed folks yelling and screaming I noticed Derek [Chauvin] together with his knee on George’s neck on the bottom,’ he mentioned.

‘George was immobile, limp and Chauvin appeared very…he was in a resting state, that means like he simply rested his knee on his neck.’

Martin, who lived above the shop, mentioned: ‘I pulled my telephone out first and referred to as my mother and informed her to not come downstairs. Then I began recording.

‘Afterward that night time I deleted it as a result of once they picked George up off the bottom the ambulance went straight down thirty eighth and the quickest solution to get to the hospital is straight down Chicago Avenue.’

Martin mentioned he assumed from this that Floyd was already lifeless and deleted his recording as he did not wish to have to indicate it to anyone or reply questions on it within the aftermath.

Requested how he had felt as he absorbed what he had simply witnessed, Martin mentioned ‘disbelief and guilt’.

Martin, who had earlier informed jurors that he had nearly not reported the faux invoice and solely achieved so after second-guessing himself, mentioned: ‘If I’d have simply not taken the invoice this might have been averted.’

Requested if he nonetheless labored at Cup Meals, Martin’s voice cracked as he mentioned: ‘No. I did not really feel secure.’

Bystander Christopher Belfrey, 45 

Christopher Belfrey testified on Wednesday about video he recorded when he drove previous Cup Meals and say officers Lane and Keung approaching Floyd in his automobile.   

Belfrey, 45, mentioned that he began recording when parked immediately behind Floyd’s SUV as a result of he was ‘startled’ to see Lane draw his handgun.

He defined that he pulled to the opposite facet of the road, not desirous to ‘get within the center’ of no matter was occurring and continued recording.

The courtroom watched the footage by which Floyd may be seen, apparently cuffed and compliant, seated in opposition to a wall having been faraway from his automobile.

In line with Belfrey, Lane and Keung then walked Floyd throughout to their squad automobile and put him in it.

Belfrey mentioned that he had merely gone dwelling at that time as a result of ‘I believed he was detained. I believed it was over.’

Bystander Charles McMillian, 61 

Charles McMillian, who was the primary individual to confront police about their therapy of Floyd on the day of his deadly arrest, broke down in tears because the prosecution performed footage of cops wrestling with the handcuffed black man.  

McMillian, 61, mentioned he was driving by the Cup Meals comfort retailer in Minneapolis on Might 25, 2020, when he seen officers scuffling with Floyd and pulled over just because he was ‘being nosy’. 

Footage from Lane’s physique digital camera, which was being launched for the primary time by the courtroom however had already obtained by final 12 months, McMillian was heard calling out as cops grappled with Floyd of their squad automobile. 

McMillian mentioned he ‘tried to make the state of affairs simple,’ by telling Floyd: ‘You possibly can’t win.’  

Floyd could possibly be heard telling McMillian: ‘I am not making an attempt to win. Do not do me like that, I am claustrophobic.’ 

As he described how Floyd started to cry out for his mom minutes later whereas pinned to the bottom by the officers, McMillian wept as he revealed that he understood how Floyd felt after shedding his personal mother. 

‘I could not assist however really feel helpless. I haven’t got a mama both, however I perceive him. My mother died June twenty fifth,’ the witness mentioned by way of tears.  

He revealed that he had expertise of being handcuffed himself and as Floyd turned extra agitated, having been apparently calm as he was walked in the direction of officers Lane and Keung’s squad automobile, McMillian mentioned he tried to assist.

The courtroom performed footage of the occasions as McMillian described them. One clip of McMillian on the sidewalk was spliced with physique digital camera footage of Floyd within the squad automobile.  

‘I am watching, , Mr Floyd,’ McMillian mentioned. ‘He collapsed onto the again seat and I am making an attempt to get him to know while you make a mistake, as soon as they get you in cuffs you bought to attend there.

‘As soon as they get you in cuffs you may’t win.’  

McMillian then described how he continued to attempt to assist Floyd after officers Lane, Keung and Chauvin had pinned him to the bottom.  

‘[Floyd] stored saying: “I am unable to breathe. Mama they’re killing me, they’re killing me.’ He began saying: “My physique’s shutting down.”‘

McMillian remembered listening to an officer speaking about fetching a ‘hog-tie’ however didn’t recall ever seeing them use such a restraint.

As extra of the video was performed McMillian’s voice could possibly be heard urging Floyd: ‘Rise up and get into the automobile. Rise up and get into the automobile man.’

Floyd responded: ‘I am unable to.’

Later McMillian could possibly be heard telling Chauvin: ‘Your knee on his neck, that is mistaken man.’

Of his personal half within the scene, McMillian mentioned: ‘I used to be making an attempt to assist him. He seemed to be out and in [of consciousness], with foam round his mouth. I mentioned: “Man he mentioned he cannot breathe,” they usually mentioned: “Effectively if he retains speaking he can breathe.”‘

Because the state’s questioning got here to an in depth, jurors heard Chauvin communicate for the primary time.

The officer’s voice was caught on officer Thao’s bodycam as he justified his actions in a quick alternate with McMillian.

When McMillian informed Chauvin: ‘I do not respect what you probably did,’ the officer replied: ‘Effectively that is one individual’s opinion. We bought to regulate this man as a result of he is a sizeable man and appears like he is in all probability on one thing.’

In a wierd twist McMillian had additionally informed the courtroom how he had met and interacted with Chauvin simply 5 days earlier. He mentioned he had pulled alongside his squad automobile and mentioned: ‘On the finish of the day you go dwelling to your loved ones secure and the following individual they go dwelling to their household secure.’

Chauvin’s lawyer Eric Nelson didn’t cross-examine the witness. 

Minneapolis Police Lt Jeff Rugel 

The prosecution referred to as Lt Jeff Rugel, who runs the Minneapolis Police Division’s Enterprise Know-how Unit, to the stand on Wednesday afternoon to authenticate officers’ physique digital camera footage and different video proof from the scene.  

Temporary footage from Chauvin’s digital camera was performed, revealing his perspective as he approached Floyd for the primary time.

Chauvin was seen together with his palms round Floyd’s neck as he and Officer Thomas Lane struggled with to get him right into a squad automobile. 

After a chaotic, blurred portion of footage, Chauvin’s digital camera fell to the tarmac and there was no extra footage from his perspective.

In footage recorded by Lane’s physique digital camera, Chauvin’s digital camera could possibly be seen mendacity beneath the squad automobile.  It is unclear precisely how the digital camera got here to be on the bottom throughout the confrontation.  

Rugel informed the jury how that Minneapolis police coverage calls for that officers put on their cameras always and to activate them throughout any exercise or public interplay. 

The prosecution went onto present the distressing body-camera footage from each Keung and Officer Tou Thao’s body-worn cameras.

Requested if Chauvin additionally wore a physique digital camera and if, based mostly on his expertise and experience, that was ‘the field on the ground [beneath squad car 320]’, Rugel mentioned: ‘Sure.’

The courtroom then noticed beforehand unseen footage from Chauvin’s physique digital camera as he and Thao sped towards Cup Meals of their squad automobile.

The footage was paused as Chauvin’s hand reached towards the digital camera.

Decide Peter Cahill excused the jury for the day after every phase of physique digital camera footage had been considered and entered into proof. 

Rugel remained on the stand to reply technical questions from Chauvin’s lawyer Eric Nelson concerning the size and modifying of the footage, in addition to Minneapolis police coverage concerning their utilization. 

George Floyd’s girlfriend Courteney Ross

Courteney Ross broke down in tears inside minutes of taking the stand on Thursday as she described how she and Floyd first met in 2017  on the Salvation Military’s Harbor Gentle Middle, a shelter the place he was working as a safety guard and she or he was visiting her son’s father. 

The married mother-of-two mentioned she was touched when Floyd requested to hope along with her as a result of she was going by way of a tough time in her personal life – they usually kissed within the foyer that very same day. 

Ross – who wore a gold necklace along with her late boyfriend’s title – started crying even tougher when Frank pulled up a photograph of Floyd. 

Then she laughed as she referred to as the picture a ‘dad selfie’, earlier than telling how laborious it was for Floyd to be so far-off from his two daughters, who lived in Texas. 

She described the person who had referred to as out for his mom in his dying moments as ‘a mama’s boy’ who was ‘devastated’ and ‘damaged’ by her demise in Might 2018. 

‘He appeared like a shell of himself like he was damaged, he appeared so unhappy,’ she mentioned. ‘He did not have the identical sort of bounce that he had.’  

Ross was then requested to deal with head on the difficulty of drug abuse with which, she admitted, each she and Floyd struggled. 

She mentioned that they have been each hooked on opioids having been prescribed them for continual ache – together with oxycodone, which he took in capsule type, acquiring it by way of different folks’s prescriptions to ensure the capsules have been secure. 

‘Each Floyd and I, our story — it is a basic story of how many individuals get hooked on opioids. We each suffered from continual ache. Mine was in my neck and his was in his again. 

‘We each have prescriptions. However after prescriptions that have been crammed, and we bought addicted, and tried actually laborious to interrupt that dependancy many instances.’ 

Although he tried to get clear, she mentioned it was one thing that he struggled with ‘on daily basis’.

In March 2020, she mentioned, she seen ‘behavioral modifications’ that made her suspect that Floyd was utilizing once more, or extra, and that she too fell into heavier use at the moment.  

On cross examination by Chauvin’s lawyer Eric Nelson, Ross revealed that that she and Floyd each bought opioids from Morries Lester Corridor, a pal who was within the passenger seat of Floyd’s automobile on the day he died.  

The pal, Morries Lester Corridor, a key witness for the state, filed a shock discover on Wednesday stating that he plans to invoke the Fifth Modification in opposition to self-incrimination, that means that he won’t testify.  

Jurors heard that Corridor offered managed substances to each her and Floyd and that she ‘didn’t like Morries in any respect’. 

Ross informed the courtroom how, in March 2020, simply two months earlier than Floyd’s demise, he bought capsules that she didn’t acknowledge because the opioids to which each she and Floyd have been addicted.

She mentioned the capsules, which she believes landed Floyd within the hospital resulting from an unintended overdose, appeared ‘thick’ and weren’t uniform, and that when she took them they didn’t have the identical impact as opioids.

‘The capsule appeared prefer it was a extremely sturdy stimulant. I could not sleep all night time. I felt very jittery,’ Corridor mentioned. 

Ross additionally revealed that Floyd had been hospitalized twice in March – on one event resulting from a drug overdose that noticed him hospitalized for 5 days.

Clearly making an attempt to attract a parallel between the signs of which Floyd complained the day he died and the sooner identified overdose, Nelson requested if Ross seen ‘foam coming from his mouth…a dry white substance’, when she took Floyd to hospital in March.

She mentioned ‘sure’ and that he had complained of his abdomen hurting and was ‘doubled-over in ache’.

In line with Ross, on one event when she took capsules believed to be purchased from Corridor she ‘felt like she was going to die.’

Paramedics Seth Bravinder and Derek Smith

Paramedics Seth Bravinder and Derek Smith testified on Thursday because the jury was proven surprising new photographs of EMTs loading Floyd into an ambulance and making an attempt to resuscitate him after he was pushed from the scene at Cup Meals on Might 25, 2020. 

Bravinder and Smith have been requested by the prosecution to clarify what was occurring in graphic video and stills of Floyd being positioned on a stretcher and handled within the ambulance. 

Among the photographs got here from video recorded by witnesses on the scene, whereas others got here from the physique digital camera of officer Thomas Lane, who rode with Floyd to the hospital.   

Requested to explain Floyd’s situation, Smith mentioned: ‘In lay phrases, I believed he was lifeless,’ because the prosecution confirmed a screengrab of him checking for Floyd’s pulse.  

Video confirmed Smith gesturing to Chauvin to take away his knee from Floyd’s neck so they might put his limp physique on a stretcher. 

In photographs proven throughout Smith’s testimony, Floyd was seen slumped, and together with his mouth bloodied as Smith mentioned he didn’t have an apparent bodily damage that will clarify his dire situation. 

Smith informed the courtroom that Floyd’s pupils have been ‘massive and dilated’.

Earlier the courtroom heard in depth proof about Floyd’s struggles with opioid dependancy. In line with the protection Floyd died because of an overdose and never of asphyxiation.

Bravinder was requested throughout his testimony what a medic would anticipate to see within the eyes of a affected person who had suffered an opioid overdose. ‘We glance to see if their pupils are actually small, constricted, pinpoint,’ he mentioned.

However when Nelson countered, asking what methamphetamine – one of many substances present in Floyd’s blood – does to the pupils, Bravinder mentioned: ‘It dilates them.’

Smith informed the courtroom that he detected a flicker {of electrical} exercise in Floyd’s coronary heart as they sped to the Hennepin County Medical Middle and administered a shock in hopes of restarting a pulse. However, he mentioned, Floyd remained ‘in his lifeless state’.  

Pictures proven throughout Bravinder’s testimony confirmed Smith chopping Floyd’s shirt and getting ready to place in an IV line as he started makes an attempt to resuscitate him on the way in which to Hennepin County Medical Middle.  

Each Bravinder and Smith testified that they needed to get Floyd into the ambulance rapidly as a result of he was in cardiac arrest.  

Bravinder added: ‘On prime of that there was additionally a crowd of people that have been yelling and in my thoughts we needed to get away from that as a result of operating a cardiac arrest takes lot of psychological energy, may be taxing and we wish to do this within the optimum atmosphere …to be in a managed house.’

Bravinder mentioned he stopped the ambulance en path to the hospital and went into the again to help his accomplice when Floyd’s cardiac monitor was exhibiting ‘asystole’ – the medical time period for ‘flat-lined’.  

‘It is not signal,’ Bravinder mentioned. ‘Mainly simply because your coronary heart is not doing something at that second. There’s not — it is not pumping blood. So it is not — it is not signal for final result.’

Floyd was proven strapped right into a Lucas gadget – a mechanical methodology of delivering chest compressions – after he had flat-lined as medics desperately tried to revive a heartbeat and ventilate him by putting an airway gadget in his mouth. 

In line with Bravinder, regardless of all efforts which included drilling a drip into bone in Floyd’s leg – a typical method in cardiac arrest when medics battle to get Intra Vascular (IV) entry – Floyd by no means regained a pulse throughout his therapy of him.

As Smith additionally recalled, Bravinder mentioned at one level Floyd confirmed ‘pulseless electrical exercise’ when his coronary heart monitor picked up glints {of electrical} rhythms however these have been by no means sturdy sufficient to determine a pulse.

When prosecutor Erin Eldridge requested if it was necessary to start out resuscitation efforts as quickly as a pulse was misplaced, Bravinder mentioned: ‘Sure, as quickly as doable.’ 

‘The longer a affected person goes with out receiving resuscitation the much less doubtless it’s that resuscitation can be profitable.’ 

Cross-examined by Nelson, Bravinder confirmed that he had personally been referred to as out to emergencies involving drug overdoses and that police have been referred to as to such circumstances as a matter in fact.

Nelson requested: ‘Is that as a result of typically when individuals are handled for an overdose they usually come spherical they turn into aggressive and violent?’

Bravinder responded: ‘Sure.’

On re-direct, Eldridge requested Bravinder: ‘Did you see somebody who seemed to be unresponsive?’

He replied: ‘From what I might inform simply standing from a distance, sure.’  

Requested about Floyd’s state within the ambulance, Bravinder mentioned: ‘I suppose limp could be one of the best description. He wasn’t — he was unresponsive and wasn’t holding his head up or something like that.’   

Minneapolis Hearth Division Captain Jeremy Norton 

Minneapolis Hearth Division Captain Jeremy Norton testified on Thursday afternoon in regards to the preliminary confusion that noticed their fireplace rig arrive at Cup Meals to help paramedics solely to seek out that the ambulance had pulled off the scene and was treating Floyd just a few blocks away.

He defined that they’d obtained little or no info past receiving a name out to Cup Meals which was elevated from code 2 (non-emergent), to code 3, (lights and sirens en route).

In line with Norton the one info he had was that the affected person had sustained ‘a mouth damage’.

On arrival on the retailer Norton discovered ‘folks upset’ and looked for a affected person.

Norton mentioned: ‘I used to be searching for a affected person. The decision was complicated as a result of I did not have quite a lot of info so was basically wanting on the ground for somebody.’

The hearth rig in the end joined the ambulance crew at thirty sixth and Park Avenue, two blocks away.

By the point he noticed Floyd he was, he mentioned: ‘Face up on the stretcher. He had an advance airway in an he had the Lucas compression gadget in place and dealing.’

Norton cleared Lane out of the ambulance and took over makes an attempt to resuscitate Floyd who was, he mentioned, ‘to all intents and functions lifeless’.

Norton revealed that after seeing Floyd’s situation he had two of his colleagues return to the scene to test on Genevieve Hansen, the off-duty fireplace fighter exterior Cup Meals who testified earlier that she had begged to intervene.

Norton defined that he had seen Hansen on the retailer and registered that she was ‘agitated to distraught’, however had been searching for a affected person and had not spoken along with her.

‘I had no understanding of the reason for her misery,’ Norton mentioned. ‘As soon as I bought within the ambulance and noticed the severity of Mr Floyd’s situation I used to be in a position to put collectively what she had been speaking about and I understood the justification of her duress and despatched my firefighters again to test on her and ensure she was okay.’ 

Minneapolis Police Division Sergeant David Pleoger

David Pleoger, who just lately retired as a sergeant with the Minneapolis Police Division and was Chauvin’s supervisor on Might 25, 2020, testified on Thursday afternoon. 

The jury heard new audio of Chauvin talking with Pleoger moments after Floyd’s demise, saying: ‘I used to be simply going to name you come out to our scene we needed to maintain a man down he was going loopy, would not go at the back of the squad.’

Pleoger mentioned that Chauvin didn’t inform him that he had utilized his knee to Floyd’s neck or that he had held him down for any size of time.

‘I imagine he informed me he’d turn into combative he talked about he’d injured both his nostril of his mouth and ultimately having struggled with him,’ Pleoger recalled.

‘He mentioned he’d suffered a medical emergency and an ambulance was referred to as.’ 

 As supervising shift sergeant, Pleoger was tasked with investigating any use of drive incidents that occurred throughout his shift – 3pm to 1am.

He arrived on the scene after being referred to as by 911 dispatcher Jena Scurry on Might 25, 2020 on seeing the incident with Floyd unfold exterior Cup Meals referred to as as a result of she had a ‘intestine feeling’ that what she was seeing ‘wasn’t proper’.

Pleoger recalled: ‘She referred to as to say she did not wish to be a snitch however she had seen one thing whereas viewing a digital camera that she thought was regarding.’

Pleoger had not obtained a name from Chauvin at the moment and initially informed Scurry that what she noticed ‘may not rely’.

In line with Minneapolis Police Division coverage officers are required to report use of drive incidents underneath sure circumstances however not if it’s a ‘take down’, which Pleoger – who had not been referred to as by any of the officers on the scene – initially assumed was the case.

The jury was proven footage from Pleoger’s physique digital camera by which officers Chauvin, Tou Thao, J Alexander Keung and Thomas Lane could possibly be standing close to the location of the place they took down Floyd. 

Pleoger instructed Chauvin to determine and communicate with witnesses, to which the officer replied: ‘We will attempt however they’re fairly hostile.’

Extra video confirmed Pleoger arriving on the hospital the place Floyd was pronounced lifeless, by which Chauvin seemed to be wringing his palms.    

Earlier in his testimony Schleicher had questioned Pleoger about Minneapolis Police Division coverage concerning use of drive and requested if he was conscious of positional asphyxia.

He mentioned he had been for ‘quite a lot of years’. Requested to clarify what it was, Pleoger mentioned: ‘When you depart somebody on their chest for too lengthy their respiration can turn into compromised so that you wish to get them off their chest.’

This was a danger, Schleicher established, whether or not any individual was making use of strain to an individual or not.

Schleicher additionally took Pleoger by way of sections of the police coverage doc together with directions concerning use of the ‘hobble’ or Most Restraint Method – a tool that cuffs a suspects palms and ft collectively and for which Chauvin referred to as for however didn’t use on Floyd.

In line with police coverage if the hobble is used, ‘the individual shall be positioned within the facet restoration place’, and never be stored face down, within the susceptible place.

Officers are additionally required ‘as quickly as moderately sensible [to] decide if anybody was injured and render medical support according to coaching and request Emergency Medical Providers (EMS) if vital’.

Pleoger’s testimony was interrupted as Chauvin’s lawyer Eric Nelson objected when Schleicher sought to attract Pleoger’s opinion on whether or not Chauvin’s use of drive had been extreme.

Decide Cahill requested the jury to go away the room whereas Nelson and Schleicher sought to argue his capability to provide that opinion.

Questioned by Nelson, Pleoger informed the courtroom that he didn’t examine the incident in depth and conduct a drive evaluate as soon as it turned ‘essential’ with Floyd’s demise. He didn’t interview the officers in depth or communicate with any of the witnesses.

In the long run Cahill allowed Schleicher to ask only one query of Pleoger: Did he have an opinion as to when the usage of drive on this incident ought to have ended? 

Pleoger responded: ‘Sure [it should have ended] when Mr Floyd was not providing up any resistance.’  

Minneapolis Police Division Sergeant Jon Edwards

Sgt. Jon Edwards, who was referred to as to safe the scene within the aftermath, testified that two of the officers concerned have been nonetheless on the website when he arrived and that he was ordered to take away the crime scene tape simply hours after his demise was confirmed. 

Edwards, who was the supervising officer who took management of the scene exterior the comfort retailer the place Chauvin knelt on Floyd’s neck, informed jurors that he was requested to go to the scene because the black man lay lifeless, or dying, in Hennepin County Medical Middle.

He testified that he was requested to safe the scene by Sergeant David Pleoger, who had been the earlier shift supervisor and had gone to the hospital with Chauvin. 

Edwards mentioned he encountered Thomas Lane and J Alexander Keung, who’ve each been charged in Floyd’s demise, on the scene when he arrived and he instructed them to activate their physique cameras.  

As photographs of the now eerily empty streets exterior Cup Meals have been screened in courtroom, Edwards informed the jury he instructed Lane and Keung to ‘relax’ whereas others canvased the realm, looking for and talking to witnesses. 

Edwards mentioned: ‘I requested them to sit back out as a result of I knew from Sergeant Pleoger that he had a few escort sergeants coming down to move them to interview room 100.’ 

Jurors have been proven photographs from Edwards’ bodyworn digital camera footage that confirmed Lane and Keung sitting of their squad automobile into which officers had tried to wrangle Floyd some two hours earlier. 

Edwards informed jurors that at roughly 10.13pm information got here by way of that Floyd had died and the state of affairs was confirmed as a essential incident. By then murder was on the scene and Lane and Keung have been transported to Metropolis Corridor to be interviewed.

The BCA took over the scene, securing Floyd’s automobile and Lane and Keung’s squad automobile which, amid all the sooner commotion, was nonetheless operating.

The courtroom was proven photos of BCA towing away the squad automobile – by which white powder and a half-chewed ‘speed-ball’ capsule a mix of methamphetamine and fentanyl bearing Floyd’s DNA and saliva have been discovered.

Edwards testified that he was then ordered to take away the crime scene tape he had earlier put up at about 3.30am. 

Minneapolis Police Division Lieutenant Richard Zimmerman 

Richard Zimmerman, the top of the Minneapolis Police Division’s murder division, informed jurors that Derek Chauvin’s use of drive in arresting George Floyd was ‘completely pointless’ as a result of a handcuffed individual would not pose a risk and kneeling on somebody’s neck can ‘kill them’.

Zimmerman, who responded to the crime scene after Floyd’s lethal arrest, testified that he had watched a number of movies exhibiting the second the officer knelt on the black man’s neck after handcuffing him. 

Having watched the movies, Zimmerman was clear: ‘Pulling him all the way down to the bottom face down and placing your knee on his neck for that period of time is simply uncalled for.’ 

He added that after Floyd was handcuffed, he noticed ‘no purpose why the officers felt they have been at risk and that is what they must really feel to make use of that stage of drive.’ 

Zimmerman informed jurors that kneeling on the neck of somebody who’s handcuffed and within the susceptible place is ‘top-tier, lethal’ drive and shouldn’t be used. 

‘In case your knee is on an individual’s neck, that may kill him,’ he mentioned. 

Requested by prosecutors whether or not a handcuffed individual was a lowered risk, Zimmerman mentioned: ‘As soon as an individual is cuffed, the risk stage goes down all the way in which. They’re cuffed, how can they actually harm you. 

‘You getting injured is method down. You may have some man attempt to kick you or one thing, however you may transfer out of the way in which. That individual is handcuffed, , so the risk stage is simply not there.’ 

Zimmerman, who’s skilled yearly in the usage of drive, informed jurors he had by no means been skilled to ‘kneel on the neck of any individual who’s cuffed and within the susceptible place’.  

‘When you safe or handcuff an individual it’s good to get them out of the susceptible place as quickly as doable as a result of it restricts their respiration,’ he mentioned, including that having your palms cuffed behind your again ‘stretches the muscular tissues again by way of your chest and makes it tougher to breathe’. 

Zimmerman, who joined the Minneapolis Police Division in 1985 and is now its most senior officer, mentioned he arrived on the scene of Floyd’s arrest simply earlier than 10pm – about half-hour after Floyd had been declared lifeless at a downtown hospital.

He mentioned he helped be sure that proof was correctly secured and any witnesses have been discovered. 

Dr. Bradford Langenfeld 

Dr. Bradford Langenfeld, the medic on the Hennepin County Medical Middle who pronounced Floyd lifeless, informed jurors that he believed the reason for demise final Might 25 was asphyxia.

Dr Langenfeld informed the courtroom, ‘Any period of time {that a} affected person spends in cardiac arrest with out CPR markedly decreases the probabilities of survival’ earlier than explaining that these probabilities dropped by 10 to fifteen p.c with every passing minute.

There was nothing within the paramedics’ experiences, he mentioned, to recommend that they have been involved that Floyd had both suffered a coronary heart assault or drug overdose.  

Dr Langenfeld additionally informed how paramedics had fought to revive Floyd for half-hour by the point he arrived in his ward however that regardless of their efforts he was in cardiac arrest and save for infrequent Pulseless Electrical Exercise (PEA) – exercise within the coronary heart not sturdy sufficient to determine a pulse – he flat-lined.

The medic couldn’t recall whether or not or not Floyd was nonetheless cuffed on arrival however he did keep in mind seeing indentations from {the handcuffs} on his wrists.  

As his direct testimony got here to an finish Dr Langenfeld informed the courtroom that he had thought-about a bunch of doable causes for Floyd’s cardiac arrest and concluded that hypoxia – oxygen deficiency or asphyxia– was almost certainly, he mentioned ‘based mostly on the data that I had.’

Dr Langenfeld introduced Floyd lifeless after half-hour within the hospital, by which period he had been and not using a pulse for near an hour.

Talking softly and soberly he recalled, ‘Within the absence of any obvious reversable trigger, [I felt that] the chance of any significant final result was far beneath 1 p.c and we might not be capable of resuscitate Mr Floyd, so I then pronounced him lifeless.’     

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